No other welding consumables such as electrodes, wires, fluxes and shielding gases are required during the welding process. The only consumption is the welding stirrer.
At the same time, due to the relatively low temperature during friction stir welding, the residual stress or deformation of the structure after welding is also much smaller than that of fusion welding. Especially when the Al alloy sheet is melted and welded, the out-of-plane deformation of the structure is very obvious. Whether the non-deformation welding technology or the post-weld cold and hot shaping technology are used, it is very troublesome and increases the manufacturing cost of the structure.
Friction stir welding is mainly used for non-ferrous metals with low melting temperature, such as Al, Cu and other alloys. This is related to the material selection of the mixing head and the working life of the mixing head. Of course, this is also related to the relative difficulty of fusion welding of non-ferrous metals, forcing people to find non-melting welding methods when welding non-ferrous metals. For black materials with good ductility and easy plastic deformation, it is also possible to realize friction stir welding by auxiliary heating or using its superplasticity, but it depends on which technical and economic index is more reasonable for fusion welding or friction stir welding.
Friction stir welding has been successfully applied in the connection of non-ferrous metals, but due to the limitations of the welding method characteristics, it is limited to the welding of simple structures, such as flat structures or cylindrical structures, and the workpiece needs to be welded during the welding process. Have good support or padding. In principle, friction stir welding can perform welding in various positions, such as flat welding, vertical welding, overhead welding and overhead welding; various forms of welded joints, such as butt, fillet and lap joints, and even structures with varying thicknesses can be completed. The connection with multi-layer materials can also be used for welding dissimilar metal materials.
In addition, as a solid-phase welding method, friction stir welding has little pollution to the environment before and during welding. FSW products do not need strict surface cleaning preparation requirements before welding. Friction and stirring during the welding process can remove the oxide film on the surface of the weldment, and there is no smoke and spatter during the welding process. At the same time low noise. Because friction stir welding only relies on the rotation and movement of the welding head to gradually realize the welding of the entire weld, it is more energy-efficient than fusion welding or even conventional welding friction.
Since the heat input in the friction stir welding process is smaller than that of the fusion welding process, there is no melting of the metal at the joint part. It is a solid-state welding process. Materials such as fusion welding will have adverse reactions.
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